英语点津:不能错过的英语最基本十二种时态,配例句详解

Tense and aspect, although they are two different categories, always appear together. There are six tenses and two aspects in English. With reference to tense and aspect, we can speak about the following structures in practical usage. All English Tenses with Examples!

时态和体虽然是两个不同的范畴,但总是同时出现的。英语有六个时态和两个方面。关于时态和体,我们可以在实际使用中谈一下以下结构。全英语时态举例。

(Note: progressive aspect is often called continuous.)

仓鼠个性小程序

(注:进行体通常称为连续体。)

present simple

一般现在时

Tenses: Present Simple (present tense + common aspect)

时态:现在简单(现在时态+共同体)

Affirmative

肯定句

Affirmative: Subject + Base Form of the Verb

肯定句:主语+动词的基本形式

*note: for 3rd Person Singular (he/ she/ it) add ‘s’ to the base form

*注:对于第三人称单数(he/she/it),在基表中添加“s”

I/ You/ We/ They work in a bank.

我/你/我们/他们在银行工作。

He/ She works in a bank.

他/她在银行工作。

Negative

否定句

Negative: Subject + don’t/ doesn’t + Base Form of the Verb

动词:主语+don’t/ doesn’t +动词的基本形式

I/ You/ We/ They don’t (do not) work.

我/你/我们/他们不工作。

He/ She/ It doesn’t (does not) work.

他/她/它不起作用。

InterrogativeInterrogative: Question Word + do/does + Subject + Base Form of the Verb

疑问句:疑问词+do/does+主语+动词的基本形式

Where do I/ you/we/they work?

我/你/我们/他们在哪里工作?

Where does he/ she work?

他/她在哪里工作?

1. Usual, regular action:

1.常规的动作:

I usually go fishing at weekends. I don’t go fishing at weekends. Do I go fishing at weekends?/You always know the answer. You don’t always know the answer. Do you always know the answer?/She never puts milk in her tea. She doesn’t put milk in her tea./Does she ever put milk in her tea?/My father plays the violin. My father doesn’t play the violin. Does your father play the violin?

/We sometimes go to the cinema on Friday. We don’t go to the cinema on Friday. Do we go to the cinema on Fridays?/They never walk in the wood. They don’t walk in the wood. Do they walk in the wood?

我通常周末去钓鱼。我周末不去钓鱼。我周末去钓鱼吗?/你总是知道答案。你并不总是知道答案。你总是知道答案吗?/她从不在茶里放牛奶。她不在茶里放牛奶。/她在茶里放过牛奶吗?/我父亲拉小提琴。我父亲不会拉小提琴。你父亲拉小提琴吗?/我们有时星期五去看电影。我们星期五不去看电影。我们星期五去看电影吗?/他们从不在树林里走。他们不在树林里走。他们在树林里散步吗?

2. General existence; stating a fact:

2.普遍存在;陈述事实:

An ostrich has two legs. A rabbit doesn’t have two legs. How many legs does a spider have?/The earth goes round the sun. The sun doesn’t go round the earth. Does the moon go round the earth?/Water is liquid at room temperature. Gold isn’t liquid at room temperature. Is gold solid at room temperature?

鸵鸟有两条腿。兔子没有两条腿。一只蜘蛛有几条腿?/地球绕太阳转。太阳不绕地球转。月亮绕地球转吗?/水在室温下是液态的。金在室温下不是液体。金在室温下是固态的吗?

3. Dramatic narrative (theatre, sports, etc. events):

3.戏剧叙事(戏剧、体育等活动):

Johnson takes the ball, he bounces it to the floor, then he throws and scores two points.

约翰逊接过球,把球弹到地板上,然后投进并得到2分。

4. Timetables

4.时间表

The train leaves at half past four. The train doesn’t leave at five. What time does the train leave?/The course starts on 1 July. The course doesn’t start in June. When does the course start?

火车四点半开。火车五点不发车。火车什么时候开?/课程从7月1日开始。课程不会在六月份开始。课程什么时候开始?

present progressive

现在进行时

Present Progressive (present tense + progressive aspect)

现在进行时(现在时+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + BE + Verb-ING

肯定:主语+BE+动词ING

You are cooking.

你在做饭。

Negative: Subject + BE not + Verb-ING

否定:主语+非主语+动词ING

You aren’t (are not) cooking.

你不是在做饭。

Interrogative: Question Word + BE + Subject + Verb-ING

疑问句:疑问词+BE+主语+动词ING

What are you cooking?

你正在做什么饭?

1. Action happening now:

1.正在进行的动作:

I’m watching a film on TV now. I‘m not watching a film. Am I watching a film?/Watch out, a car’s coming. It isn’t not coming. Is it coming?/The boys are sleeping upstairs. They boys aren’t sleeping upstairs. Are the boys sleeping upstairs?

我正在电视上看电影。我没在看电影。我在看电影吗?/小心,有车来了。不会来的。它来了吗?/孩子们正在楼上睡觉。他们不是在楼上睡觉。孩子们在楼上睡觉吗?

2. Action happening about this time, but not necessarily now:

2.行动发生在这个时候,但不一定是现在:

He‘s studying Spanish and German. He‘s not studying French. What languages is he studying?/They‘re going to a business course. They aren’t going to a cooking course. What course are they going to?/You‘re visiting museums while you’re here. You‘re not visiting factories. Are you visiting museums in our city?

他在学西班牙语和德语。他没有学法语。他在学什么语言?/他们要去上商业课。他们不去上烹饪课。他们要上什么课?/你来的时候正在参观博物馆。你不去参观工厂。你在参观我们城市的博物馆吗?

3. Definite arrangement in the near future:

3.近期明确安排:

I‘m travelling to Paris tomorrow. I‘m not travelling to Paris tomorrow. Am I travelling to Paris tomorrow?/My son is taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight. My son isn’t taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight. Is he taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight?/You‘re going to Italy on holiday this year, aren’t you? You aren’t going to Greece. Where are you going on holiday this year?

我明天要去巴黎旅行。我明天不去巴黎了。我明天要去巴黎吗?/我儿子今晚要带他女朋友去吃饭。我儿子今晚不带他女朋友去吃饭。他今晚要带女朋友去吃饭吗?/你今年要去意大利度假,是吗?你不会去希腊的。今年你打算去哪里度假?

past simple

一般过去时

Tenses: Past Simple (past tense + common aspect)

时态:过去式(过去式+共同体)

Affirmative: Subject + Verb in Past Simple (2nd form)

肯定:过去式简单句中的主语+动词(第二种形式)

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They lived in London ten years ago.

我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们十年前住在伦敦。

Negative: Subject + didn’t (did not) + Base Form of the Verb

否定:主语+不(不)动词的基本形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They didn’t like the film.

我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们不喜欢这部电影。

Interrogative: Question Word + did + subject + Base Form of the Verb

疑问句:疑问词+did+主语+动词基本形式

Where did I/ you/ he/ she/ it/ we/ they meet Richard?

我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们在哪里见过理查德?

Actions, events in the past:

过去的行动、事件:

I had lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday. I didn’t have lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday. Did I have lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday?/Mother went to work on Tuesday. Mother didn’t go to work on Tuesday. Did Mother go to work on Tuesday?/You did the shopping this morning. You didn’t do the shopping this morning. Where did you do the shopping this morning?/She travelled to Spain last year. She didn’t travel anywhere last year. Where did she travel last year?

我昨天和罗宾逊太太吃了午饭。我昨天没有和罗宾逊太太一起吃午饭。我昨天和罗宾逊太太吃午饭了吗?/妈妈星期二去上班了。妈妈星期二没去上班。妈妈星期二去上班了吗?/你今天早上去买东西了。你今天早上没去买东西。今天早上你在哪里买的东西?/她去年去了西班牙。她去年哪儿也没去旅行。她去年去哪儿旅行了?

Past Progressive

过去进行式

Tenses: Past Progressive (past tense + progressive aspect)

时态:过去进行时(过去时+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + was/ were + Verb-ING

时态:过去进行时(过去时+进行体)

I/He/She was having a shower when you called.

你打电话的时候我/他/她正在洗澡。

We/ You/ They were watching TV when Bob arrived.

鲍勃到达时我们/你/他们正在看电视。

Negative: Subject + wasn’t (was not)/ weren’t (were not) + Verb-ING

否定:主语+wasn’t (was not)/ weren’t (were not) +动词ING

I/ He/ She wasn’t having a shower when you called.

你打电话的时候我/他/她没有洗澡。

We/ You/ They weren’ watching TV when Bob arrived.

鲍勃来的时候我们/你/他们正在看电视。

Interrogative: Question word + was/ were + Verb-ING

疑问句:疑问词+was/were+动词ING

What were you doing when Bob arrived?/What was she doing when you called?

鲍勃来的时候你在干什么?/你打电话的时候她在干什么?

Action in progress in the past:

过去正在采取的行动:

I was working in the garden when my sister arrived. I wasn’t working in the garden when my sister arrived. Was I working in the garden when my sister arrived?/We were watching a film at ten last night. We weren’t watching a film at ten last night. Were we watching film at ten last night?/She was playing with the kids from eight to nine. She wasn’t playing with the kids from eight to nine. Who was she playing with?

我姐姐来的时候我正在花园里干活。我姐姐来的时候我不在花园里干活。我姐姐来的时候我正在花园里干活吗?/昨晚十点我们在看电影。昨晚十点我们没在看电影。昨晚十点我们在看电影吗?/她从八点到九点和孩子们一起玩。她从八点到九点都没和孩子们玩。她在和谁玩?

Present Perfect Simple (present perfect tense + common aspect)

一般现在完成时(现在完成时+共同体)

Affirmative: Subject + have/ has + Past Participle (3rd Form of the Verb)

肯定:主语+have/ has+过去分词(动词的第三种形式)

I/ You/ We/ They have finished the letter.

我/你/我们/他们已经写完了这封信。

He/ She has finished the letter.

他/她已经写完了信。

Negative: Subject + haven’t (have not)/ hasn’t (has not) + Past Participle

否定:主语+have’t(have not)/have’t(has not)+过去分词

Negative

否定

I/ You/ We/ They haven’t finished the letter.

我/你/我们/他们还没写完这封信。

He/ She hasn’t finished the letter.

他/她还没写完信。

Interrogative: Question Word + have/ has + Past Participle

疑问句:疑问词+have/ has+过去分词

Have I/ you/we/ they finished the letter?

我/你/我们/他们写完信了吗?

Has he/she finished the letter?

他/她写完信了吗?

1. Action with a result:

1.有结果的行动:

Sorry, I‘ve parked at the wrong place. I haven’t parked at the wrong place. Have I parked at the wrong place?/You‘ve (already) printed the letters. You haven’t printed the letters (yet). Have you printed the letters (yet)?/We‘ve (already) done the rooms. We haven’t done the rooms yet. Have we done the rooms (yet)?/He has already repaired the lawn-mower. He hasn’t repaired the lawn-mower yet. Has he repaired the lawn-mower yet?

对不起,我把车停错地方了。我没把车停错地方。我停错地方了吗?/你已经把信打印出来了。你还没有把信打印出来。你把信打印出来了吗?/我们已经把房间整理好了。我们还没有整理房间。我们整理房间了吗?/他已经修好了割草机。他还没修好割草机。他修好割草机了吗?

2. Action in incomplete time:

2.不完全时间内的行动:

Our friends have visited us four times this summer. Our friends haven’t visited us this summer. How many times have our friends visited us this summer?/I‘ve been to the cinema a lot lately. I haven’t been to the cinema lately. Have I been to the cinema lately?

/You‘ve been on holiday this year. You haven’t been on holiday this year. Have you been on holiday this year?

我们的朋友今年夏天来过我们四次。我们的朋友今年夏天没有来看我们。今年夏天我们的朋友来过我们几次?/我最近常去看电影。我最近没去看电影。我最近去看电影了吗?/你今年休假了。你今年没有休假。你今年休假了吗?

3. Action in the past without saying when:

过去的行动,不说何时:

Jane has already been to Italy. Jane has never been to Italy. Has Jane ever been to Italy?/You have already swum in this lake. You haven’t swum in this lake yet. Have you ever swum in this lake?/You‘ve been to the hairdresser’s. You haven’t been to the hairdresser’s. Where have you been?

简已经去过意大利了。简从未去过意大利。简去过意大利吗?/你已经在这个湖里游泳了。你还没在这个湖里游泳。你在这个湖里游泳过吗?/你去过理发店。你没去过理发店。你去哪儿了?

4. Action beginning in the past and still continuing:

4.过去开始并仍在继续的行动:

The Simpsons have lived here for eight years. The Simpsons haven’t lived here for long. How long have the Simpsons lived here?/He has driven a car since 2002. He hasn’t driven a car since 2002. Has he driven a car since 2002?/You‘ve worked here for two years. You haven’t worked here for two years. How long have you worked here?

辛普森一家已经在这里住了八年了。辛普森一家在这里住的时间不长。辛普森一家在这里住了多久?/他从2002年起就开始开车了。他从2002年起就没开过车。他从2002年起就开车了吗?/你在这里工作两年了。你两年没在这里工作了。你在这里工作多久了?

Present Perfect Progressive

现在完成进行时

Present Perfect Progressive (present perfect tense + progressive aspect)

现在完成进行体(现在完成时+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + have/ has been + Verb-ING

肯定:主语+have/have been+动词ING

I/ you/ We/ They have been learning English for a year.

我/你/我们/他们已经学了一年英语了。

He/ She has been learning English for a year.

他/她已经学了一年英语了。

Negative: Subject + haven’t/hasn’t been + Verb-ING

否定:主语+haven’t/haven’t been+动词ING

I/ You/ We/ They haven’t been playing tennis for a long time.

我/你/我们/他们很久没打网球了。

He/ She hasn’t been playing tennis for a long time.

他/她很久没打网球了。

Interrogative: Question Word + have/ has + Subject + been Verb-ING

疑问句:疑问词+have/has+主语+been动词ING

How long have I/ you/ we/ they been learning English?

我/你/我们/他们学英语多久了?

How long has he/ she been learning English?

他/她学英语多久了?

Action beginning in the past and still continuing (with the progress emphasized):

过去开始并仍在继续的行动(强调进展):

They‘ve been staying in this hotel for ten days. They haven’t been staying in this hotel for ten days. Have they been staying in this hotel for ten days?/He has been mowing the lawn all this morning. He hasn’t been mowing the lawn all this morning. How long has he been mowing the lawn?/You‘ve been missing classes lately. You haven’t been coming to class lately. What have you been doing lately?

他们已经在这家旅馆住了十天了。他们已经十天没在这家旅馆住了。他们在这家旅馆住了十天了吗?/他整个上午都在修剪草坪。他整个上午都没在修剪草坪。他修剪草坪多久了?/你最近缺课了。你最近没来上课。你最近在干什么?

Past Perfect Simple

过去完成时

Past Perfect Simple (past tense + common aspect)

一般过去时(过去时+共同体)

Affirmative: Subject + had + Past Participle

肯定:主语+had+过去分词

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They had already met Sarah before the party.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们在聚会前已经见过莎拉了。

Negative: Subject + hadn’t (had not) + Past Participle

否定:主语+没有(没有)+过去分词

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They hadn’t met Sarah before the party.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们在聚会前没见过莎拉。

Interrogative: Question Word + had + Subject + Past Participle

疑问句:疑问词+有+主语+过去分词

Had I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they met Sarah before the party?

我/你/他/她/我们/他们在聚会前见过莎拉吗?

Action in the past before another:

前车之鉴:

She said she had written three letters the day before. She said she hadn’t written any letters the day before. How many letters had she written the day before?/They had lived in York before they moved to Liverpool. They hadn’t lived in York before they moved to Liverpool. Where had they lived before they moved to Liverpool?/You‘d locked the door before you left. You hadn’t locked the door before you left. Had you locked the door before you left?

她说她前一天写了三封信。她说她前一天没有写信。她前一天写了多少封信?/他们搬到利物浦之前住在约克。他们搬到利物浦之前没有住在约克。他们搬到利物浦之前住在哪里?/你走之前把门锁上了。你走之前还没锁门。你走之前锁门了吗?

Past Perfect Progressive

过去完成进行时

Past Perfect Progressive (past perfect tense + progressive aspect)

过去进行时

Affirmative: Subject + had been + Verb-ING

肯定:主语+had been+动词ING

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They had been living in German for years before moving here.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们在搬到这里之前已经在德国住了好几年了。

Negative: Subject + hadn’t been + Verb-ING

否定词:主语+不曾是+动词ING

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They hadn’t been living in Germany for a long time before moving here.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们在搬到这里之前很久没有在德国生活了。

Interrogative: Question Word + had + Subject + been Verb-ING

疑问句:疑问词+had+主语+been动词ING

How long had I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they been living in Germany before moving here?

How long had I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they been living in Germany before moving here?

Action in the past before another (with the progress emphasized):

前车之鉴(强调进步):

He said he had been mowing the lawn all that morning. He said he hadn’t been mowing the lawn all that morning. How long had he been moving the lawn when you met him?/They had been working for the same company for a long time before they changed jobs. They hadn’t been working for the same company for a long time before they changed jobs. Had they been working for the same company for a long time before they changed jobs?/They had been living in York before they moved to Liverpool. They hadn’t been living in York before they moved to Liverpool. How long had they been living in York before they moved to Liverpool?

他说那天早上他一直在修剪草坪。他说那天早上他没有在修剪草坪。你见到他时,他搬草坪多久了?/他们在换工作之前在同一家公司工作了很长时间。他们在换工作之前,很久没有在同一家公司工作了。他们在换工作之前在同一家公司工作了很长时间吗?/他们搬到利物浦之前一直住在约克。他们搬到利物浦之前并不住在约克。他们搬到利物浦之前在约克住了多久?

Future Simple

将来时态

Future Simple (future tense + common aspect)

将来式(将来时态+共同部分)

Affirmative: Subject + Will + Base Form of the Verb

肯定:主语+will+动词的基本形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They will see Jane when she comes back from India.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们会在简从印度回来时见到她。

Negative: Subject + Won’t (will not) + Base Form of the Verb

否定:主语+不会(will not)+动词的基本形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They won’t see Jane when she comes back from India.

简从印度回来时我/你/他/她/我们/他们不会见到她。

Interrogative: Question Word + Will + Subject + Base Form of the Verb

疑问句:疑问词+意志+主语+动词基本形式

Will I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they see Jane when she comes back from India?

简从印度回来后,我/你/他/她/我们/他们会见到她吗?

Fact, action or event in the future:

未来的事实、行动或事件:

I will be thirty years old next year. I won’t be thirty years old again. Will I be thirty years old again?/We‘ll meet them at the station at six. We won’t meet them at the station. Where will we meet them?/You‘ll cross the channel by ferry. You won’t cross the channel. How will you cross the channel?

明年我就三十岁了。我不会再过三十岁了。我还会再过三十岁吗?/我们六点在车站等他们。我们不会在车站见他们。我们在哪里见他们?/你将乘渡船横渡英吉利海峡。你不会过海峡的。你怎么过海峡?

Future Progressive

进步的未来

Future Progressive (future tense + progressive aspect)

将来进行体(将来时+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + Will Be + Verb-ING

肯定:主语+will be+动词ING

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They will be having fun at the party.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们将在聚会上玩得很开心。

Negative: Subject + Won’t Be + Verb-ING

否定:主语+不会是+动词ING

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They won’t be having fun at the party.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们在聚会上不会玩得很开心。

Interrogative: Question Word + Will + Subject + Be Verb-ING

疑问句:疑问词+会+主语+动词ING

Will I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they be having fun at the party?

我/你/他/她/我们/他们会在聚会上玩得开心吗?

Action in progress at a given time of the future:

在未来特定时间进行中的行动:

This time tomorrow we will be flying to Los Angeles. We won’t be flying to New York. Where will we be flying?You‘ll be doing /housework with me at six tomorrow. You won’t be playing football. What will you be doing at six tomorrow?/I‘ll be playing tennis from seven to nine. I won’t be playing tennis at six. When will I be playing tennis?

明天这个时候我们将飞往洛杉矶。我们不会坐飞机去纽约。我们将飞往哪里?明天六点你将和我一起做家务。你不会去踢足球了。明天六点你要做什么?/我将从七点到九点打网球。我六点不打网球。我什么时候打网球?

Future Perfect Simple

将来完成时

Future Perfect Simple (future perfect tense + common aspect)

将来完成时态+共同部分

Affirmative: Subject + Will Have + Past Participle

肯定:主语+将有+过去分词

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They will have met Dora’s husband by this time tomorrow.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们明天这个时候就会见到多拉的丈夫了。

Negative: Subject + Won’t Have + Past Participle

否定:主语+Won’t Have+过去分词

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They won’t have met Dora’s husband by this time tomorrow.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们明天这个时候还没见过朵拉的丈夫。

Interrogative: Question Word + Will + Subject + Have + Past Participle

疑问句:疑问词+Will +主语+有+过去分词

Will you have met Dora’s husband by this time tomorrow?

明天这个时候你会见到朵拉的丈夫吗?

Action completed by a given time of the future:

在未来给定时间完成的操作:

I will have done this work by the end of next week. I won’t have done this work by the end of next week. Will I have done this work by the end of next week?/They‘ll have arrived by the time we return. They won’t have arrived by the time we return. Will they have arrived by the time we return?/She will have taken three exams by next Tuesday. She won’t have taken any exams by next Tuesday. How many exams will she have taken by next Tuesday?

我将在下周末之前完成这项工作。到下周末我还没有完成这项工作。到下周末我能完成这项工作吗?/我们回来时他们已经到了。我们回来时他们还没到。我们回来时他们会到吗?/到下周二她将参加三次考试。到下星期二她不会参加任何考试。到下星期二她将参加几次考试?

Future Perfect Progressive

将来完成进行时

Future Perfect Progressive (future perfect tense + progressive aspect)

将来完成进行体(将来完成时+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + Will Have Been + Verb-ING

肯定:主语+ Will Have Been+动词ING

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They will have been working with John for ten years next week.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们下周将与约翰共事十年。

Negative: Subject + Won’t Have Been + Verb-ING

否定:主语+Won’t Have Been+动词ING

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They won’t have been working with John for ten years next week.

我/你/他/她/我们/他们下星期就不会和约翰共事十年了。

Interrogative: Question Word + Will + Subject + Have Been + Verb-ING

疑问句:疑问词+ Will+主语+一直+动词ING

How long will I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they have been working with John next week?

我/你/他/她/我们/他们下周和约翰一起工作多久?

Action completed by or still in progress at a given time of the future (with the progress emphasized):

在未来某一特定时间完成或仍在进行的行动(强调进展):

We will have been staying here for a week tomorrow. We won’t have been staying here for a week tomorrow. How long will we have been staying here?/You will have been living here for thirty years by this time next year. You won’t have been living here for thirty years by this time next year How long will you have been living here by this time next year?/I‘ll have been playing the guitar for ten years by next year. I won’t have been playing the guitar for ten years by next year. How long will I have been playing the guitar?

明天我们将在这里呆一个星期。明天我们就不会在这里呆一个星期了。我们要在这里呆多久?/到明年这个时候你已经在这里住了三十年了。到明年这个时候你已经在这里住了三十年了,明年这个时候你在这里住多久了?/到明年我已经弹了十年吉他了。到明年我就不会弹十年吉他了。我弹吉他要多久?

文章来源:沪江英语

Photo by Icons8 Team on Unsplash

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