justifiable 抓贼反被贼告,由法律来主持正义!

justifiable[ˈdʒʌstɪfaɪəbl]

adj.有理由的; 正当的; 入情入理; 说得过去

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仓鼠个性小程序

最近似乎听到好几次这样的新闻,小伙见义勇为过程中致流氓受伤反而被要求赔偿,受害人反制犯罪者结果被告了等等…这样的情况,是不是听了就来气!别急,有法律为我们主持正义,在法律上有一种判定是正当防卫。相信大家对这个词并不陌生,也很好理解,指的就是对正在进行不法侵害行为的人采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成一定限度损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。但是如何用英语表达呢?教给大家这样一个词组:

justifiable defense 正当防卫

我们来详细拆解一下justifiable,这个词是来自justify(证明…合法),它的词根是just=-right,来自拉丁语,表示“正直、法律”。

所以一系列关于just的词都是与法律有关的,例如justice(正义)、justify(证明…合法)、justly(公正地)。

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下面来补充几个关于它的短语:

justifiable reason 正当理由

hardly justifiable 说不过去

justifiable action 正当行动

just-家族的表达,你学会了吗?下面一起看看报道~

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2017年,湖南岳阳的徐先生遇到了这样一件事:自家的摩托车被盗了,发现后,他立刻驾车寻找,在这一过程中,虽然逼停了逃跑的小偷,却因追尾碰撞造成了对方受伤。今年6月,徐先生反被当年的小偷诉至法庭,要求赔偿。法院将如何认定徐先生的这一行为呢?

正当防卫新规或许能给此事一个说法。

最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部近日联合发布《关于依法适用正当防卫制度的指导意见》,对依法准确适用正当防卫制度作出较为全面系统的规定。

The premise of justifiable defense is the existence of unlawful infringement, which includes not only infringement on the right to life and health, but also the violation of personal freedoms, public and private property, among other rights, according to the guideline.

指导意见明确,正当防卫的前提是存在不法侵害。不法侵害既包括侵犯生命、健康权利的行为,也包括侵犯人身自由、公私财产等权利的行为。

【知识点】

正当防卫(justifiable defense),指对正在进行不法侵害行为的人采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成一定限度损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。

我国《刑法》第二十条对正当防卫的规定是:

为了使国家、公共利益、本人或者他人的人身、财产和其他权利免受正在进行的不法侵害,而采取的制止不法侵害的行为,对不法侵害人造成损害的,属于正当防卫,不负刑事责任。

If a person employs an act to stop an unlawful infringement for the purposes of avoiding the said infringement for the State’s or the public interest or for his own or another person’s right of the person, property right or any other right, thus causing harm to the unlawful infringer, the said act shall be regarded as a justifiable defense and the said person shall not bear criminal responsibility.

正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或者免除处罚。

If a justifiable defense apparently exceeds the limits of necessity, thus causing a serious harm, the person involved shall bear criminal responsibility, but be given a mitigated punishment or be exempt from punishment.

对正在进行行凶、杀人、抢劫、强奸、绑架以及其他严重危及人身安全的暴力犯罪,采取防卫行为,造成不法侵害人伤亡的,不属于防卫过当,不负刑事责任。

If a person employs an act of defense to an immediate violent crime of committing physical assault, homicide, robbery, rape, kidnapping or any other crime seriously endangering the safety of another person, thus causing bodily injury or death to the unlawful infringer, the said act shall not be regarded as a defense that exceeds the limits of necessity, and the said person shall not bear criminal responsibility.

其中,“正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任”指的就是“防卫过当(excessive defense)”。

在正当防卫制度的具体适用上,指导意见还提出了 “十个准确”规则。例如,要准确把握正当防卫的起因条件(causal conditions for justifiable defense)、准确把握正当防卫的时间条件(timing of justifiable defense)、准确把握防卫过当的意图条件(intentions of excessive defense)、准确把握防卫过当的刑罚裁量(punishment for excessive defense)及特殊防卫的认定条件等。

If someone finds that others are causing damage to national or public security, efforts to stop them will also be regarded as self-defense. For example, passengers can stop people trying to grab steering wheels or attack bus drivers while vehicles are in motion, according to the guideline.

指导意见明确,阻止危害国家或公共安全的行为被视为正当防卫。比如,在行驶的车辆上,乘客对于正在进行的拉拽方向盘、殴打司机等行为,可以实行防卫。

In addition, when a person is attacked by a group of people, he or she can fight back not only against the attackers as self-defense, but also those organizing or instigating the attack at the scene, it added.

对于多人共同实施不法侵害的,既可以针对直接实施不法侵害的人进行防卫,也可以针对在现场共同实施不法侵害的人进行防卫。

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Notes

正当防卫 justifiable defense

紧急避险 emergency measures

公共秩序 public order

社会治安 social security

以危险方法危害公共安全罪

crime of endangering public security with dangerous method

文章来源:中国日报双语新闻

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