《三国演义》: 从古典名著中汲取中国智慧 A tale of tactics


A 1994 TV series, starring Tang Guoqiang (left) as Zhuge Liang, is adapted from Romance of the Three Kingdoms. CCTV

An epic about the pursuit of power among an empire at war, Romance of the Three Kingdoms features great heroes, as well as tales of loyalty, betrayal and master plans. Written by Ming Dynasty author Luo Guanzhong (1330-1400), this historical novel is one of the four classics of Chinese literature and arguably one of the greatest and most influential stories of all time. Many operas, films, games and proverbs have sprung from this masterwork.
《三国演义》是一部关于群雄争霸的战争史诗,它塑造了叱咤风云的英雄人物,讲述了忠诚、背叛和权谋的故事。这本由明代作家罗贯中所著的历史小说是中国古典四大名著之一,或许也是史上最杰出、最具影响力的故事之一。许多戏剧、电影、游戏、谚语都是从这部名作中衍生而来。

The story – which is part history, legend and myth – spans over a century from the end of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) to the Three Kingdoms (220-280) period. At this turbulent time, the states of Cao Wei, Shu Han and Eastern Wu all competed for dominance of China.
这个结合了历史、传说、神话的故事跨越从东汉(公元前206年到220年)末年到三国时代(220年到280年)的一百多年。在这一动荡的时代,曹魏、蜀汉、东吴群雄逐鹿,争夺江山。

仓鼠个性小程序

The book’s impact on military strategies is nearly on par with Art of War by Sun Zi of the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). “Romance of the Three Kingdoms is actually another great era of excellent military strategies and negotiations that we can all learn from,” wrote Christopher Quek from the Alp News. “It’s very rich in strategies and many are applicable today.”
这本书在军事战略上的影响与春秋时期孙子所著的《孙子兵法》不相上下。“实际上,《三国演义》呈现给我们的是又一个可以借鉴的充满出色军事战略与谈判的伟大时代,”来自Alp News的克里斯托弗·奎克如此写道。“书中的大量谋略,许多在今天仍然适用。”

One notable tactic from the story is the Empty Fort Strategy by famous strategist Zhuge Liang. It involves using reverse psychology to trick the enemy into believing that an empty location is full of traps, causing the enemy to retreat.
故事中的一大名计谋便是著名军事家诸葛亮的空城计。这条计谋运用了逆反心理,设计让敌人相信空城中布满陷阱,从而让敌人退兵。

Of more than 1,000 characters in this extensive novel, Zhuge Liang, a mechanical and mathematical genius, is still cited by many around the world in their daily conversations on strategies.
在这部长篇巨作的1000多个人物中,诸葛亮堪称机械学与数学方面的天才,如今仍被世界各地的许多人在关于谋略的日常对话中提及。

In fact, the story of Romance of the Three Kingdoms has spread beyond the borders of China in other media as well. It has been adapted into a long-running video game series of the same name that first came out in 1985, with its 15th version released this year. In the game, players participate in role-playing war games in which they must consider the best strategies to not only manage cities, but successfully wage war and pursue diplomacy.
事实上,《三国演义》的故事也通过其他媒体走出国门。被改编而成的同名游戏系列于1985年首度发行,风行多年,今年推出了第15版游戏。玩家们在参与角色扮演的战争游戏中,不光要考虑管理城池的最佳策略,还要成功地发动战争和进行外交斡旋。

Adaptations of Luo’s epic don’t end there: Chinese, Japanese and South Korean comics, endless TV series and movies, and even a podcast have adapted Romance of the Three Kingdoms for young generations and likely many more to come.
对于罗贯中这部史诗的改编并不会止步于此:中日韩版本的连环画,无数影视剧,甚至将《三国演义》改编成符合年轻一代口味的播客等等,将来可能仍将层出不穷。

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